Abstract Ref Number = APCP1240
Association of Low Birth Weight and Gender Differences with Stunting in Children under Five Years in Yogyakarta
Audesia Alvianita Sutrisno
Universitas Gajah Mada
Background : Stunting, main nutritional problem in children health, can leads to impaired cognitive, which results in low educational level and high mortality. It is closely associated with internal factors such as maternal health and low birth weight, and external factors such as feeding pratices, socio-economics, and immunization status. Indonesia has high incidence of stunting in Southeast Asian countries. The objectives of the study were to investigate the prevalence of stunting and analyze its association with low birth weight among children under 5 years old in Berbah, Yogyakarta.
Material : A cross sectional study was done in February to April 2014 in Berbah, Yogyakarta. 207 children and 154 mothers were included in this study using consecutive sampling technique. Stunting was measured using standardized body length and defined based on WHO’s reference population. Nutritional children were compared by categories of maternal body mass index (BMI), immunization status, exclusive breastfeeding history, and birth weight. The outcomes were examined using bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions.
Results : The mean age of children was 26,99 months and 112 children (53,85%) were males. Fifty-four (27%) children were stunted. Of the stunted children, 27 (50%) were severely stunted. Exclusive breast feeding was experienced by 77.84% of the children and 7% of children were born with low birth weight. Multivariate analysis showed infants with low birth weight were 2.95 times more likely to be stunted (95% confidence interval = 0.985, 8.872) than those born with normal weight. Girls had 0.53 times lower to become stunted than boys (95% confidence interval = 0.2831, 1.001). The observed associations such as maternal BMI, immunization status, and exclusive breastfeeding were not significantly associated with stunting.
Conclusions : Low birth weight and gender are factors related significantly to stunting among children under 5 years old in Berbah, Yogyakarta. Targeted interventions should be designed to reduce stunting and its consequences such as encouraging pregnant woman to have better nutrition status.
Keywords: stunting low birth weight maternal health gender differences