Ref Number = PITIKA-ASPR0139
Henry Wicaksono, Lutvia Hidayati, Dwiyanti Puspitasari, Dominicus Husada, Leny Kartina, Parwati S. Basuki, Ismoedijanto
Rubella infection can affect several organs and cause birth defects that are responsible for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is the most common symptom of this syndrome, occurring in approximately 60% of CRS cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate laboratory confirmed CRS among of infants with SNHL. 

A cross sectional study was conducted. Data of infant with suspects CRS were collected from 2014-2018 in Dr. Soetomo Academic General Hospital, Surabaya. Infant who diagnosed as SNHL and laboratory confirmed CRS were identified. SNHL was defined as sensorineural hearing loss of 30 dB or greater over at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies occurring within a 72 hour period. While laboratory confirmed CRS was defined as rubella IgM antibody detected for infants less than 6 months of age, while for infants 6 months but less than 12 months of age, rubella IgM and IgG antibody detected, or a sustained rubella IgG antibody level, as determined on at least two occasions at least one month apart in the absence of receipt of rubella vaccine or exposure to wild-type rubella. Chi-square test was applied to analyze data.

From total 506 infants with suspect CRS, there were 125 (25%) diagnosed as SNHL. Among them, 52.8% were female, 68.8% were less than 6 months of age, 53.6% were preterm, and 46.4% were low birth weight. Laboratory confirmed CRS was found in 50/92 (54%) infants with SNHL. SNHL was risk factor for confirmed laboratory CRS with RR 3.6286 (P<0.001: 95%CI 2.539 to 5.185).

Infant with SNHL was a risk factor about three times higher to have laboratory confirmed CRS.
Keywords: rubella, sensorineural hearing loss, congenital rubella syndrome, igM antibody, igG antibody
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