Guntur Grafiyanto,Dwi Hidayah,Yulidar Hafidh
Pediatric Resident of Sebelas Maret University Neonatology Subdivision, Department of Child Health
Background : Pulmonary hypoplasia is the incomplete development of lung tissue. A reduced number of lung cells, airways, and alveoli is the hallmark and can be seen unilaterally or in both lungs. This case report describes the signs and symptoms, the diagnosis, the management and the prognosis of pulmonary hypoplasia.
Case Presentation Summary : A referred female neonate was admitted with respiratory distress. The patient was delivered spontaneously and presented with respiratory distress, cyanotic extremities and grunting. Physical examination revealed deformities on the right side thorax, tachypnea, retraction, asymmetrical chest wall movement, lagged right hemithorax with decreased of fremitus and vesicular sounds. Chest radiograph and CT Scan demonstrated right sided pulmonary hypoplasia, lobar pneumonia and cardiomegaly. Echocardiography showed congenital heart disease, ASD, PDA and TR mild. The patient then admitted to our Neonatal High Care Unit with respiratory support and discharged on the 9th day of hospitalization. At the follow up on our outpatient clinic the patient improved with minimal respiratory complication.
Learning Points/Discussion : Primary congenital pulmonary hypoplasia should be highly suspected in neonates who present with immediate respiratory distress and small lung volume despite advanced respiratory support. The deteriorated respiratory status of these neonates may lead to respiratory failure and even death.