Ref Number = ASPR0004
Amalia Setyati, 
Department of Child-Health Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing 
Universitas Gadjah Mada 
*E-mail: amaliasetyati@gmail.com
One third of the world?s population is estimated to have latent TB infection (LTBI); in other words, they do not have active TB disease but may develop it through a process of reactivation of dormant bacilli that start multiplying and produce active TB. The lifetime risk of reactivation for a person with documented Latent TB  Infection is estimated to be 5-10%, with the majority developing TB disease within 18 months of initial infection. This includes preventing people with latent TB from developing active, and infectious, TB disease. TB drug treatment for the prevention of TB, also known as chemoprophylaxis, can reduce the risk of a first episode of active TB occurring in people with latent TB.  
Preventive therapy requires the identification of at-risk populations for LTBI: adults and adolescents living with HIV, with unknown or a positive tuberculin skin test and are unlikely to have active TB should receive preventive treatment of TB. Infants aged < 12 months living with HIV who are in contact with a case of TB and are investigated for TB should receive 6 months of isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT) if the investigation shows no TB disease. Children aged 
Keywords: Contact TB; prevention therapy; multi drug-resistant
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United States Agency for Internatonal Development (USAID). Management of drug-resistant tuberculosis in children: A field guide. 2012. Boston, USA: The Sentinel Project for Pediatric Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis; http://sentinel-project.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Field_Handbook_3rd-Ed-30-. Accessed August 2, 2019.

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Management of contacts of MDR TB and XDR TB patients. Stockholm: ECDC; 2012. https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/40/Suppl_56/206 Accessed August 2, 2019

Yohhei Hamada,a Philippe Glaziou,a Charalambos Sismanidisa & Haileyesus etahun. Prevention of tuberculosis in household members: estimates of children eligible for treatment. https://www.who.int/bulletin/online_first/BLT.18.218651.pdf?ua=1. Accessed August 2, 2019

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