Ref Number = PITIKA-ASPR0028
Yayang Aditia Dewi, Rina Agustina
Objectives: To assess the sodium intake, sodium-rich foods, and blood pressure in children aged 3 years in urban areas of East Jakarta.
Method: A cross sectional study that was nested in an East Jakarta cohort study was conducted involving 198 children aged 3 years old.  Sodium intake was estimated by using 2-times 24-hour dietary recalls representing weekday and weekend periods. Sodium intakes were categorized into less or exceeding 1500 mg/day according to the upper limit of sodium intake for children of this age by institute of medicine (IOM). Blood pressure was measured by semi-automatic device that has been validated for pediatrics population. Average values for systolic and diastolic blood pressures were compared between groups using independent T test.  
Results: The average of sodium intake was 1559 ± 564 mg/day equivalent to 3.9 ±1.4 g/day of salt. According to IOM guideline, 48% children were less than 1500 mg g/day sodium intake, and 52% exceeded the recommendation. We found that most of frequent sodium-rich food sources consumed by the children came from formula milk, protein-rich food products such as poultry, and meat product and followed by processed food like instant noodles and extruded snacks. Mean systolic blood pressure of these children was 95.6 ± 3.03 mmHg and mean diastolic blood pressure was 54.2 ± 3.7 mmHg. There was no systolic and diastolic blood pressure means difference between groups of sodium intake.
Conclusion: Most urban children in the present study exceeded sodium intake recommendation, but no difference was found in blood pressure between sodium intake groups. High contribution of sodium intake from formula milk, animal-based protein rich, and processed foods in the actual intakes of children must be of concern for a long-term follow up of the blood pressure.  
Keywords: sodium, blood pressure, children, formula milk, protein rich food
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